Hip, vertebral, and wrist fracture risks and schizophrenia: a nationwide longitudinal study

Yu Wen Chu, Wen Pin Chen, Albert C. Yang, Shih Jen Tsai, Li Yu Hu, Shyh Chyang Lee, Yao Tung Lee, Cheng Che Shen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Fractures are a great health issue associated with morbidity, quality of life, life span, and health care expenditure. Fractures are correlated with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, and some psychiatric disorders. However, representative national data are few, and longitudinal cohort studies on the association between schizophrenia and the subsequent fracture risk are scant. We designed a nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association of schizophrenia with hip, vertebral, and wrist fractures over a 10-year follow-up. Methods: Data of patients with schizophrenia (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 295) and matched over January 2000–December 2009) were extracted from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was constructed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for fractures between the schizophrenia and control cohorts. Results: Of 2028 people with schizophrenia (mean age: 36.3 years, 49.4% female), 89 (4.4%) reported newly diagnosed fractures—significantly higher than the proportion in the control population (257, 3.2%; P = 0.007). The incidences of hip (1.2%, P = 0.009) and vertebral (2.6%, P = 0.011) fractures were significantly higher in the schizophrenia cohort than in the control cohort. In Cox regression analysis, hip (adjusted HR: 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–2.93) and vertebral (adjusted HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.01–1.95) fracture risks were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, a sex-based subgroup analysis revealed that the risk of hip fracture remained significantly higher in female patients with schizophrenia (HR: 2.68, 95% CI: 1.32–5.44) than in female controls. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction between effects of sex and schizophrenia on the risk of fractures. Conclusions: Over a 10-year follow-up, hip and vertebral fracture risks were higher in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. The risk of fractures in patients with schizophrenia does not differ between female and male.

Original languageEnglish
Article number77
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Cohort study
  • Fracture
  • Hazard ratio
  • National Health Insurance Research Database
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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