Radioresistance and metastasis are critical issues in managing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been recommended to treat OSCC, lacking useful biomarkers limited their anti-cancer effectiveness. We found that guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5) is upregulated in primary tumors and associates with radioresistance in OSCC. GBP5 expression causally associated with cellular radioresistance and migration ability in the OSCC cell variants. GBP5 upregulation was examined to be correlated with NF-κB activation and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) elevation in OSCC samples. GBP5 knockdown was mitigated, but overexpression enhanced, NF-κB activity and PD-L1 expression in the OSCC cells. NF-κB inhibition by SN50 dramatically suppressed the GBP5-forested irradiation resistance, cellular migration ability and PD-L1 expression in OSCC cells. Importantly, GBP5 upregulation predicted a favorable outcome in cancer patients received ICI treatment. Our findings provide GBP5 as a useful biomarker to predict the anti-OSCC effectiveness of irradiation and ICIs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109892
JournalClinical Immunology
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • GBP5
  • Metastasis
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • PD-L1
  • Radioresistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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