Glycogen synthase kinase-3β indirectly facilitates interferon-γ-induced nuclear factor-κB activation and nitric oxide biosynthesis

Jui-In Kai, Wei-Ching Huang, Cheng-Chieh Tsai, Wen-Teng Chang, Chia-Ling Chen, Chiou Feng Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Either glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β or nuclear factor (NF)-κB regulates interferon (IFN)-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis; however, the inter-regulation between GSK-3β and NF-κB is unknown. We have previously shown that IFN-γ-activated GSK-3β negatively regulates Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP) 2 to facilitate Janus kinase (Jak) 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 activation. Because Jaks-IFN-inducible dsRNA-activated serine-threonine protein kinase (PKR) axis signaling is essential for IFN-γ-activation of NF-κB, in this study we investigate the potential mechanism for GSK-3β-facilitated NF-κB activation in IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Pharmacological inhibitors of GSK-3β or NF-κB signaling, such as the inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase β (IKKβ) and IκBα, inhibited IFN-γ-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and thus NO biosynthesis. Inhibiting GSK-3β decreased IFN-γ-induced NF-κB phosphorylation (Ser536) and activation. The upstream regulators for GSK-3β activation, including okadaic acid-sensitive protein phosphatase and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2, were also important for IFN-γ-induced IκBα phosphorylation (Ser32) and degradation. Under IFN-γ stimulation, Jak2-PKR axis signaling induced IκBα inactivation as well as iNOS/NO biosynthesis. It is notable that inhibiting GSK-3β caused SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of PKR (Thr446), IKKβ (Ser180), and NF-κB (Ser536). Taken together, we provide the first evidence to demonstrate that GSK-3β indirectly facilitates IFN-γ-induced NF-κB activation by inhibiting SHP2, in turn activating the PKR-IKKβ-IκBα axis signaling pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1522-1530
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cellular Biochemistry
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 15 2010


  • GSK-3β
  • IFN-γ
  • NF-κB
  • NO
  • SHP2
  • iNOS
  • macrophage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Glycogen synthase kinase-3β indirectly facilitates interferon-γ-induced nuclear factor-κB activation and nitric oxide biosynthesis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this