Platelets are crucial for hemostasis and arterial thrombosis, which may lead to severe cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Thus, therapeutic agents must be developed to prevent pathological platelet activation. Glabridin, a major bioalkaloid extracted from licorice root, improves metabolic abnormalities (i.e., obesity and diabetes) and protects against CVDs and neuronal disorders. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have focused on glabridin’s effects on platelet activation. Therefore, we investigated these effects in humans and mice. Glabridin exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and moderate effects on arachidonic-acid-stimulated activation; however, no effects were observed for any other agonists (e.g., thrombin or U46619). Glabridin evidently reduced P-selectin expression, ATP release, and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) mobilization and thromboxane A2 formation; it further reduced the activation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2/protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-κB. In mice, glabridin reduced the mortality rate caused by acute pulmonary thromboembolism without altering bleeding time. Thus, glabridin effectively inhibits the PLCγ2/PKC cascade and prevents the activation of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and MAPK pathways; this leads to a reduction in [Ca2+]i mobilization, which eventually inhibits platelet aggregation. Therefore, glabridin may be a promising therapeutic agent for thromboembolic disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11372
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • glabridin
  • MAPK
  • microvascular thrombosis
  • PI3K/Akt/GSK3β
  • platelet
  • PLCγ2/PKC
  • pulmonary thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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