Platelets assume a pivotal role in the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Thus, targeting platelet activation is imperative for mitigating CVDs. Ginkgetin (GK), from Ginkgo biloba L, renowned for its anticancer and neuroprotective properties, remains unexplored concerning its impact on platelet activation, particularly in humans. In this investigation, we delved into the intricate mechanisms through which GK influences human platelets. At low concentrations (0.5–1 μM), GK exhibited robust inhibition of collagen and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Intriguingly, thrombin and U46619 remained impervious to GK's influence. GK's modulatory effect extended to ATP release, P-selectin expression, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels and thromboxane A2 formation. It significantly curtailed the activation of various signaling cascades, encompassing phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2)/protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β and mitogen-activated protein kinases. GK's antiplatelet effect was not reversed by SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) or ODQ (a guanylate cyclase inhibitor), and GK had no effect on the phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoproteinSer157 or Ser239. Moreover, neither cyclic AMP nor cyclic GMP levels were significantly increased after GK treatment. In mouse studies, GK notably extended occlusion time in mesenteric vessels, while sparing bleeding time. In conclusion, GK's profound impact on platelet activation, achieved through inhibiting PLCγ2–PKC cascade, culminates in the suppression of downstream signaling and, ultimately, the inhibition of platelet aggregation. These findings underscore the promising therapeutic potential of GK in the CVDs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere18139
JournalJournal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • ginkgetin
  • human platelets
  • MAPK
  • PI3K/Akt
  • PLCγ2
  • vascular thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Cell Biology


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