Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as indicated by epithelial hyperpermeability and high levels of mucosal-associated bacteria. Changes in gut microbiota may be correlated with IBD pathogenesis. Additionally, microbe-based treatments could mitigate clinical IBD symptoms. Plasmon-activated water (PAW) is known to have an anti-inflammatory potential. In this work, we studied the association between the anti-inflammatory ability of PAW and intestinal microbes, thereby improving IBD treatment. We examined the PAW-induced changes in the colonic immune activity and microbiota of mice by immunohistochemistry and next generation sequencing, determined whether drinking PAW can mitigate IBD induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and dysbiosis through mice animal models. The effects of specific probiotic species on mice with TNBS-induced IBD were also investigated. Experimental results indicated that PAW could change the local inflammation in the intestinal microenvironment. Moreover, the abundance of Akkermansia spp. was degraded in the TNBS-treated mice but elevated in the PAW-drinking mice. Daily rectal injection of Akkermansia muciniphila, a potential probiotic species in Akkermansia spp., also improved the health of the mice. Correspondingly, both PAW consumption and increasing the intestinal abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila can mitigate IBD in mice. These findings indicate that increasing the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in the gut through PAW consumption or other methods may mitigate IBD in mice with clinically significant IBD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11422
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Akkermansia muciniphila
  • gut microbiota
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • microbial biomarker
  • plasmon-activated water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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