Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations of frailty and other predictor variables with functional recovery and health outcomes in middle-aged and older patients with trauma. Design: Single-center prospective cohort study. Setting: Emergency department of Wan Fang Hospital in Taiwan. Participants: Trauma patients aged 45 and older. Measurements: Frailty was assessed with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Injury mechanisms, pre-existing diseases, and fracture locations were recorded at baseline. The primary outcome was functional recovery assessed using the Barthel Index (BI). Secondary outcomes were new care needs, unscheduled return visits, and falls 3 months postinjury. Results: A total of 588 participants were included in the final analysis. For every one-point increase in the CFS, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) of failure to retain the preinjury BI was 1.34 (1.16–1.55); associations were consistent across levels of age and injury severities. Significant joint associations of frailty and age with poor functional recovery were observed. CFS was also associated with new care needs (OR for every one-point increase, 1.36, 95% CI, 1.17–1.58), unscheduled return visits (OR 1.26, 95% CI, 1.04–1.51), and falls (OR 1.23, 95% CI, 1.01–1.51). Other variables associated with failure to retain preinjury BI included road traffic accident and presence of hip fracture. Conclusion: Frailty was significantly associated with poor functional and health outcomes regardless of injury severity in middle-aged and older patients with trauma. Injury mechanisms and fracture locations were also significant predictors of functional recovery postinjury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-255
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Issue number2
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Clinical Frailty Scale
  • Frailty
  • functional recovery
  • injury
  • middle-to older age

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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