Flights and Perchings of the BrainMind: A Temporospatial Approach to Psychotherapy

Aldrich Chan, Georg Northoff, Ryan Karasik, Jason Ouyang, Kathryn Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article introduces a process-oriented approach for improving present moment conceptualization in psychotherapy that is in alignment with neuroscience: the Temporospatial movements of mind (TSMM) model. We elaborate on seven temporal movements that describe the moment-to-moment morphogenesis of emotional feelings and thoughts from inception to maturity. Temporal refers to the passage of time through which feelings and thoughts develop, and electromagnetic activity, that among other responsibilities, bind information across time. Spatial dynamics extend from an undifferentiated to three dimensional experiences of emotional and cognitive processes. Neurophysiologically, spatial refers to structures within the brain and their varying interactions with one another. This article culminates in the development of an atheoretical temporospatial grid that may help clinicians conceptualize where patients are in their cognitive and emotional development to further guide technique.

Original languageEnglish
Article number828035
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - Mar 24 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • brain
  • consciousness
  • interpersonal neurobiology
  • mind
  • neuroscience
  • psychotherapy
  • spatiotemporal
  • treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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