8 Citations (Scopus)


Saccadic eye movements are directed to the objects of interests and enable high-resolution visual images in the exploration of the visual world. There is a trial-to-trial variation in saccade dynamics even in a simple task, possibly attributed to arousal fluctuations. Previous studies have showed that an increase of fatigue level over time, also known as time-on-task, can be revealed by saccade peak velocity. In addition, pupil size, controlled by the autonomic nervous system, has long been used as an arousal index. However, limited research has been done with regards to the relation between pupil size and saccade behavior in the context of trial-to-trial variation. To investigate fatigue and arousal effects on saccadic and pupillary responses, we used bright and emotional stimuli to evoke pupillary responses in tasks requiring reactive and voluntary saccade generation. Decreased voluntary saccade peak velocities, reduced tonic pupil size and phasic pupillary responses were observed as time-on-task increased. Moreover, tonic pupil size affected saccade latency and dynamics, with steeper saccade main sequence slope as tonic pupil size increased. In summary, saccade dynamics and tonic pupil size were sensitive to fatigue and arousal level, together providing valuable information for the understanding of human behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9234
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • arousal
  • pupil dilation
  • pupil light reflex
  • saccade peak velocity
  • superior colliculus
  • time-on-task
  • trial-to-trial
  • voluntary and reflexive saccades

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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