Family economic trajectories and body mass index in Indonesia: Evidence from the Indonesian Family Life Surveys 2 to 5

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Indonesia faces the double burdens of childhood obesity and malnutrition. A family's socioeconomic status has been suggested to be one of the most influential factors contributing to childhood nutritional problems. This study aimed to: 1) identify the distinct trajectories of family economics; and 2) assess whether a family's economic trajectory influences children's body mass index (BMI). We analyzed trajectory patterns of family economic levels from 1997 to 2015 among 846 children aged under 3 years in 1997 using data from Indonesian Family Life Surveys. Trajectory patterns were identified with Group-Based Trajectory Modeling using the traj plug-in in STATA software. The BMI was classified according to 2007 World Health Organization growth standards. Adjusted relative risk ratios (aRRRs) of family economic level trajectories and children's BMI were calculated using multinomial logistic regressions. We identified three distinct trajectories of family economic level: stable poorest, stable middle, and increasing richest. In the total sample, there were no significant relationships between a family's income trajectory and children's BMI in the adjusted models. A significant relationship existed for male children, but not for female children, of compared to the poorest family trajectory group, male children in the increasing richest trajectory group were more likely to be overweight/obese (aRRR 6.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.22–30.62) after adjusting for age and BMI. The present results highlight the importance of early interventions to minimize the potential adverse impacts of excessive BMI later in adulthood.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102262
JournalPreventive Medicine Reports
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Body mass index
  • Childhood obesity
  • Family economic trajectory
  • Indonesia
  • Rurality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Family economic trajectories and body mass index in Indonesia: Evidence from the Indonesian Family Life Surveys 2 to 5'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this