Factors related to lower urinary tract symptoms among a sample of employed women in Taipei

Yuan Mei Liao, Molly C. Dougherty, Paul P. Biemer, Chin Tai Liao, Mary H. Palmer, Alice R. Boyington, AnnaMarie Connolly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To identify factors associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among female elementary school teachers in Taipei. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. A total of 520 surveys were distributed to 26 elementary schools in Taipei. Logistic regression was used to identify possible factors related to individual LUTS. Results: Study results were based on the information provided by 445 participants. Of the 445 teachers, 293 (65.8%) experienced at least one type of LUTS. Factors associated with urinary incontinence were body mass index (BMI), vaginal delivery, obstetric and/or gynecological surgery, bladder habits, and job control. Increased daytime urinary frequency was associated with chronic cough and chronic constipation. Bladder habits, straining to lift heavy objects at work and chronic constipation were associated with urgency. Nocturia was associated with age and caffeine consumption while intermittent stream was associated with the presence of a family history of LUTS and chronic constipation. Bladder habits and regular exercise were associated with weak urinary stream. Incomplete emptying was more likely to occur in teachers with chronic constipation and in those who did not exercise regularly. Conclusion: All the LUTS under logistic regression analyses were associated with 1-3 modifiable factors. Identification of these modifiable contributing factors may be useful to health care providers. Education of women may include the importance of maintaining normal body weight, good bladder/bowel habits, and regular exercise, treating chronic cough, decreasing daily caffeine consumption, and implementing feasible environmental modifications in employment settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-59
Number of pages8
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • Employed women
  • Female school teachers
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms
  • Occupation
  • Urinary incontinence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Nephrology
  • Urology


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