Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been a global public health problem with many adverse outcomes, but data are lacking regarding the relationship between air pollutants and risk of renal progression in patients with CKD. This study was to investigate whether 1-year average exposure to ambient air pollutants –CO, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10—is related to renal function deterioration among patients with CKD. A total of 5301 CKD patients were included in this study between October 2008 and February 2016. To estimate each patient's exposure to ambient air pollution, we used the 24-h ambient air pollution concentration monitoring data collected one year prior to renal progression or their last renal function assessment. Renal progression was considered when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreased more than 25% from the baseline eGFR. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Among 5301 patients with CKD, 1813 (34.20%) developed renal progression during the 30.48 ± 14.99-month follow-up. Patients with the highest quartile exposure to CO [HR = 1.53 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.88)], NO [HR = 1.38 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.71)], NO2 [HR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.36, 1.97)], SO2 [HR = 2.27 (95% CI: 1.83, 2.82)], PM2.5 [HR = 7.58 (95% CI: 5.97, 9.62)], and PM10 [HR = 3.68 (95% CI: 2.84, 4.78)] had a significantly higher risk of renal progression than those with the lowest quartile exposure. In the multipollutant model, the analyses yielded to similar results. These results reinforce the importance of measures to mitigate air pollution and strategies to prevent worsening of kidney function in patients with CKD. One-year high exposure to ambient CO, NO, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, and PM10 is significantly associated with deteriorated kidney function in patients with CKD among Taiwanese adults.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114289
JournalEnvironmental Research
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Gaseous pollutant
  • Multicenter studies
  • Ordinary kriging
  • Particulate matter
  • Renal progression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • General Environmental Science


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