Exploring the Epigenetic Regulated Modulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Involvement in High-Fat Diet Associated Parkinson’s Disease in Rats

Violina Kakoty, Sarathlal Kc, Chih Hao Yang, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Rajeev Taliyan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Imbalance in brain glucose metabolism and epigenetic modulation during the disease course of insulin resistance (IR) associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk remains a prime concern. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), the metabolic hormone, improves insulin sensitivity and elicits anti-diabetic properties. Chronic stress during brain IR may modulate the FGF21 expression and its dynamic release via epigenetic modifications. Metformin regulates and increases the expression of FGF21 which can be modulating in obesity, diabetes, and IR. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the FGF21 expression modulation via an epigenetic mechanism in PD and whether metformin (MF), an autophagy activator, and sodium butyrate (NaB), a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor, alone and in combination, exert any therapeutic benefit in PD pathology exacerbated by high-fat diet (HFD). Our results portray that the combination treatment with MF and NaB potentially attenuated the abnormal lipid profile and increased motor performance for the rats fed with HFD for 8 weeks followed by intrastriatal 6-hydroxy dopamine administration. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) estimations of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 beta and 6, and FGF21 exhibited extensive downregulation after treatment with the combination. Lastly, mRNA, western blot, histological, and cresyl violet staining depicted that the combination treatment can restore degenerated neuronal density and increase the protein level compared to the disease group. The findings from the study effectively conclude that the epigenetic mechanism involved in FGF21 mediated functional abnormalities in IR-linked PD pathology. Hence, combined treatment with MF and NaB may prove to be a novel combination in ameliorating IR-associated PD in rats, probably via the upregulation of FGF21 expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)725-740
Number of pages16
JournalACS Chemical Neuroscience
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 15 2023


  • fibroblast growth factor 21
  • high-fat diet
  • insulin resistance
  • metformin
  • Parkinson disease
  • sodium butyrate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology


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