2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Platelets are small anucleated blood cells primarily known for their vital hemostatic role. Allogeneic platelet concentrates (PCs) collected from healthy donors are an essential cellular product transfused by hospitals to control or prevent bleeding in patients affected by thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunctions. Platelets fulfill additional essential functions in innate and adaptive immunity and inflammation, as well as in wound-healing and tissue-repair mechanisms. Platelets contain mitochondria, lysosomes, dense granules, and alpha-granules, which collectively are a remarkable reservoir of multiple trophic factors, enzymes, and signaling molecules. In addition, platelets are prone to release in the blood circulation a unique set of extracellular vesicles (p-EVs), which carry a rich biomolecular cargo influential in cell–cell communications. The exceptional functional roles played by platelets and p-EVs explain the recent interest in exploring the use of allogeneic PCs as source material to develop new biotherapies that could address needs in cell therapy, regenerative medicine, and targeted drug delivery. Pooled human platelet lysates (HPLs) can be produced from allogeneic PCs that have reached their expiration date and are no longer suitable for transfusion but remain valuable source materials for other applications. These HPLs can substitute for fetal bovine serum as a clinical grade xeno-free supplement of growth media used in the in vitro expansion of human cells for transplantation purposes. The use of expired allogeneic platelet concentrates has opened the way for small-pool or large-pool allogeneic HPLs and HPL-derived p-EVs as biotherapy for ocular surface disorders, wound care and, potentially, neurodegenerative diseases, osteoarthritis, and others. Additionally, allogeneic platelets are now seen as a readily available source of cells and EVs that can be exploited for targeted drug delivery vehicles. This article aims to offer an in-depth update on emerging translational applications of allogeneic platelet biotherapies while also highlighting their advantages and limitations as a clinical modality in regenerative medicine and cell therapies. © 2023, National Science Council of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Original languageEnglish
JournalJ. Biomed. Sci.
Volume30
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Allogeneic platelet concentrate
  • Cell therapy
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Human platelet lysate
  • Platelet
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Blood Platelets
  • Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
  • Extracellular Vesicles
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Humans
  • Regenerative Medicine
  • antiinflammatory agent
  • antineoplastic agent
  • beta3 integrin
  • biomaterial
  • calcium chloride
  • eye drops
  • messenger RNA
  • microRNA
  • platelet derived growth factor
  • platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1
  • protoporphyrin cobalt
  • psoralen
  • riboflavin
  • thrombocyte concentrate
  • transforming growth factor beta
  • unclassified drug
  • vasculotropin
  • [5 (4 fluorophenyl) 2 ureido]thiophene 3 carboxamide
  • allogenic cell
  • Alzheimer disease
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • angiogenesis
  • antibacterial activity
  • antiinflammatory activity
  • bacterium
  • biochemistry
  • bleeding disorder
  • blood clotting
  • blood transfusion
  • buffy coat (procedure)
  • cell differentiation
  • cell granule
  • cell interaction
  • cell lysate
  • cell therapy
  • cerebrovascular accident
  • cornea ulcer
  • cytotoxicity
  • dendritic cell
  • disease association
  • drug activity
  • drug delivery system
  • dry eye
  • electroporation
  • erythrocyte
  • exosome
  • extracellular matrix
  • freeze thawing
  • GPIIb gene
  • GPIIIa gene
  • heart infarction
  • heart protection
  • hemostasis
  • hip osteoarthritis
  • human
  • immune response
  • immunity
  • immunomodulation
  • incubation time
  • knee osteoarthritis
  • leukemia
  • leukocyte
  • lysosome
  • macrophage
  • mitochondrion
  • nanomedicine
  • neurologic disease
  • neuroprotection
  • nonhuman
  • ocular surface disease
  • parasite
  • Parkinson disease
  • PDGF gene
  • PECAM 1 gene
  • pneumonia
  • PSGL 1 gene
  • purification
  • regenerative medicine
  • Review
  • safety
  • storage
  • T lymphocyte
  • thrombocyte
  • thrombocyte function
  • thrombocyte membrane
  • thrombocyte rich plasma
  • thrombocyte structure
  • thrombocytopheresis
  • thrombosis
  • tissue repair
  • ultrasound
  • ultraviolet A radiation
  • ultraviolet phototherapy
  • VEGF gene
  • virus
  • virus inactivation
  • biological therapy
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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