A related group of parvoviruses infects members of many different carnivore families. Some of those viruses differ in host range or antigenic properties, but the true relationships are poorly understood. We examined 24 VP1/VP2 and 8 NS1 gene sequences from various parvovirus isolates to determine the phylogenetic relationships between viruses isolated from cats, dogs, Asiatic raccoon dogs, mink, raccoons, and foxes. There were about 1.3% pairwise sequence differences between the VP1/VP2 genes of viruses collected up to four decades apart. Viruses from cats, mink, foxes, and raccoons were not distinguished from each other phylogenetically, but the canine or Asiatic raccoon dog isolates formed a distinct clade. Characteristic antigenic, tissue culture host range, and other properties of the canine isolates have previously been shown to be determined by differences in the VP1/VP2 gene, and we show here thai there are at least 10 nucleotide sequence differences which distinguish all canine isolates from any other virus. The VP1/VP2 gene sequences grouped roughly according to the time of virus isolation, and there were similar rates of sequence divergence among the canine isolates and those from the other species. A smaller number of differences were present in the NS1 gene sequences, but a similar phylogeny was revealed. Inoculation of mutants of a feline virus isolate into dogs showed that three or four CPV- specific differences in the VP1/VP2 gene controlled the in vivo canine host range.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science