Evaluating correlates of protection for mix-match vaccine against COVID-19 VOCs with potential of evading immunity

Sih Han Liao, Wei Jung Chang, Chen Yang Hsu, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Ting Yu Lin, Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: In the face of rapid emerging variants of concern (VOCs) with potential of evading immunity from Beta to Omicron and uneven distribution of different vaccine brands, a mix-match strategy has been considered to enhance immunity. However, whether increasing immunogenicity using such a mix-match can lead to high clinical efficacy, particularly when facing Omicron pandemic, still remains elusive without using the traditional phase 3 trial. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how to evaluate correlates of protection (CoP) of the mix-match vaccination. Methods: Data on neutralizing antibody (NtAb) titers and clinical efficacy against Wuhan or D614G strains of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or mRNA-1273 and heterologous vaccination were extracted from previous studies for demonstration. The reductions in NtAb titers of homologous vaccination against Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants were obtained from literatures. A Bayesian inversion method was used to derive CoP from homologous to mix-match vaccine. Findings The predicted efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and mRNA-1273 for Wuhan or D614G strains was 93 % (89 %-97 %). Given 8 ∼ 11-fold, 2 ∼ 5.5-fold, and 32.5 ∼ 36-fold reduction of NtAb for Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants compared with D614G, the corresponding predictive efficacy of the mix-match ranged from 75.63 % to 73.87 %, 84.87 % to 81.25 %, and 0.067 % to 0.059 %, respectively. Interpretations While ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and mRNA-1273 used for demonstrating how to timely evaluate CoP for the mix-match vaccine still provides clinical efficacy against Beta and Delta VOCs but it appears ineffective for Omicron variants, which highlights the urgent need for next generation vaccine against Omicron variant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6864-6872
Number of pages9
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Correlate of protection
  • COVID-19
  • Mix-match
  • Variant of concern

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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