Background: In the face of rapid emerging variants of concern (VOCs) with potential of evading immunity from Beta to Omicron and uneven distribution of different vaccine brands, a mix-match strategy has been considered to enhance immunity. However, whether increasing immunogenicity using such a mix-match can lead to high clinical efficacy, particularly when facing Omicron pandemic, still remains elusive without using the traditional phase 3 trial. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how to evaluate correlates of protection (CoP) of the mix-match vaccination. Methods: Data on neutralizing antibody (NtAb) titers and clinical efficacy against Wuhan or D614G strains of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or mRNA-1273 and heterologous vaccination were extracted from previous studies for demonstration. The reductions in NtAb titers of homologous vaccination against Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants were obtained from literatures. A Bayesian inversion method was used to derive CoP from homologous to mix-match vaccine. Findings The predicted efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and mRNA-1273 for Wuhan or D614G strains was 93 % (89 %-97 %). Given 8 ∼ 11-fold, 2 ∼ 5.5-fold, and 32.5 ∼ 36-fold reduction of NtAb for Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants compared with D614G, the corresponding predictive efficacy of the mix-match ranged from 75.63 % to 73.87 %, 84.87 % to 81.25 %, and 0.067 % to 0.059 %, respectively. Interpretations While ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and mRNA-1273 used for demonstrating how to timely evaluate CoP for the mix-match vaccine still provides clinical efficacy against Beta and Delta VOCs but it appears ineffective for Omicron variants, which highlights the urgent need for next generation vaccine against Omicron variant.
- Correlate of protection
- Variant of concern
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases