Eugenol Suppresses Platelet Activation and Mitigates Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Humans and Murine Models

Wei Chieh Huang, Lan Hsin Shu, Yu Ju Kuo, Kevin Shu Leung Lai, Chih Wei Hsia, Ting Lin Yen, Chih Hsuan Hsia, Thanasekaran Jayakumar, Chih Hao Yang, Joen Rong Sheu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Platelets assume a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), emphasizing their significance in disease progression. Consequently, addressing CVDs necessitates a targeted approach focused on mitigating platelet activation. Eugenol, predominantly derived from clove oil, is recognized for its antibacterial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, rendering it a valuable medicinal agent. This investigation delves into the intricate mechanisms through which eugenol influences human platelets. At a low concentration of 2 μM, eugenol demonstrates inhibition of collagen and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Notably, thrombin and U46619 remain unaffected by eugenol. Its modulatory effects extend to ATP release, P-selectin expression, and intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]i). Eugenol significantly inhibits various signaling cascades, including phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2)/protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)/thromboxane A2 (TxA2) formation induced by collagen. Eugenol selectively inhibited cPLA2/TxA2 phosphorylation induced by AA, not affecting p38 MAPK. In ADP-treated mice, eugenol reduced occluded lung vessels by platelet thrombi without extending bleeding time. In conclusion, eugenol exerts a potent inhibitory effect on platelet activation, achieved through the inhibition of the PLCγ2–PKC and cPLA2-TxA2 cascade, consequently suppressing platelet aggregation. These findings underscore the potential therapeutic applications of eugenol in CVDs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2098
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • cPLA2/TxA
  • eugenol
  • human platelets
  • MAPK
  • PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β
  • PLCγ2–PKC
  • pulmonary thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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