Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. It is clas-sified into core molecular subgroups (non-wingless activated (WNT), sonic hedgehog activated (SHH), Group 3 (G3), and Group 4 (G4)). In this study, we analyzed the tumor-infiltrating immune cells and cytokine profiles of 70 MB patients in Taiwan using transcriptome data. In parallel, immune cell composition in tumors from the SickKids cohort dataset was also analyzed to confirm the findings. The clinical cohort data showed the WNT and G4 MB patients had lower recurrence rates and better 5-year relapse-free survival (RFP) compared with the SHH and G3 MB patients, among the four subgroups of MB. We found tumor-infiltrating B cells (TIL-Bs) enriched in the G4 subgroups in the Taiwanese MB patients and the SickKids cohort dataset. In the G4 subgroups, the patients with a high level of TIL-Bs had better 5-year overall survival. Mast cells presented in G4 MB tumors were positively correlated with TIL-Bs. Higher levels of CXCL13, IL-36γ, and CCL27 were found compared to other subgroups or normal brains. These three cytokines, B cells and mast cells contributed to the unique immune microenvironment in G4 MB tumors. Therefore, B-cell enrichment is a G4-subgroup-specific immune signature and the presence of B cells may be an indica-tor of a better prognosis in G4 MB patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5287
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2022


  • G4 subgroup
  • mast cells
  • medulloblastoma
  • tumor-infiltrating B cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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