The cerebral vascular system stringently regulates cerebral blood flow (CBF). The components of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) protect the brain from pathogenic infections and harmful substances, efflux waste, and exchange substances; however, diseases develop in cases of blood vessel injuries and BBB dysregulation. Vascular pathology is concurrent with the mechanisms underlying aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD), which suggests its involvement in these mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, we reviewed the role of vascular dysfunction in aging and neurodegenerative diseases, particularly AD and VaD. During the development of the aforementioned diseases, changes occur in the cerebral blood vessel morphology and local cells, which, in turn, alter CBF, fluid dynamics, and vascular integrity. Chronic vascular inflammation and blood vessel dysregulation further exacerbate vascular dysfunction. Multitudinous pathogenic processes affect the cerebrovascular system, whose dysfunction causes cognitive impairment. Knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of vascular dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases and the underlying molecular mechanisms may lead to the discovery of clinically relevant vascular biomarkers, which may facilitate vascular imaging for disease prevention and treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2909
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD)
  • blood–brain barrier (BBB)
  • cerebral blood flow (CBF)
  • vascular dementia (VaD)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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