Endodontic Radiopacifying Application of Barium Titanate Prepared through a Combination of Mechanical Milling and Heat Treatment

Hsiu Na Lin, Wei Wen Chen, Chun Chun Hsu, May Show Chen, Pei Jung Chang, Wei Min Chang, Fang Hao Zhang, Chin Yi Chen, Pee Yew Lee, Chung Kwei Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) are commonly used as endodontic filling materials but suffer from a long setting time and tooth discoloration. In the present study, the feasibility of using barium titanate (BTO) for discoloration and a calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution to shorten the setting time was investigated. BTO powder was prepared using high-energy ball milling for 3 h, followed by sintering at 700–1300 °C for 2 h. X-ray diffraction was used to examine the crystallinity and crystalline size of the as-milled and heat-treated powders. MTA-like cements were then prepared using 20–40 wt.% BTO as a radiopacifier and solidified using a 0–30% CaCl2 solution. The corresponding radiopacity, diametral tensile strength (DTS), initial and final setting times, and discoloration performance were examined. The experimental results showed that for the BTO powder prepared using a combination of mechanical milling and heat treatment, the crystallinity and crystalline size increased with the increasing sintering temperature. The BTO sintered at 1300 °C (i.e., BTO-13) exhibited the best radiopacity and DTS. The MTA-like cement supplemented with 30% BTO-13 and solidified with a 10% CaCl2 solution exhibited a radiopacity of 3.68 ± 0.24 mmAl and a DTS of 2.54 ± 0.28 MPa, respectively. In the accelerated discoloration examination using UV irradiation, the color difference was less than 1.6 and significantly lower than the clinically perceptible level (3.7). This novel MTA exhibiting a superior color stability, shortened setting time, and excellent biocompatibility has potential for use in endodontic applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7270
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • barium titanate
  • discoloration
  • mechanical milling
  • mineral trioxide aggregates
  • radiopacifier
  • radiopacity
  • setting time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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