Efficacy and Safety of Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Monotherapy Compared with Combination Therapy for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Thi Thuy Nguyen, Nguyen Thanh Nhu, Van Khoi Tran, Tran Thuc Huan Nguyen, Chiou Feng Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effectiveness and safety of combination treatments such as chemoimmunotherapies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) remain controversial. Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKis) are an effective therapy for CLL/SLL patients. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of BTKis versus combination therapy in CLL/SLL patients. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and Embase databases through February 2023 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Four RCTs (including 1510 patients) were found and met the inclusion criteria. Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with BTKis when compared to the combination therapy (hazard ratio (HR), 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22–0.40), while a pooled analysis of overall survival did not favor single-agent BTKis over the combination therapy (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.67–1.15). We observed consistent benefits for PFS among patients with high-risk disease characteristics. Although there was no difference in complete response between the two arms (risk ratio (RR), 0.54; 95% CI, 0.20–1.46), BTKi use was related to a better overall response rate (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04–1.16). The risk of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) was comparable between the two arms (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.55–1.23). However, the risk of grade ≥3 AEs was significantly lower in the second-generation BTKi group than in the combination therapy group (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54–0.98). Overall, BTKis have superior efficacy compared to the combination regimens in patients with untreated or treated CLL/SLL without excess toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and determine the optimal therapy for managing patients with CLL/SLL.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1996
JournalCancers
Volume15
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023

Keywords

  • Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • meta-analysis
  • small lymphocytic lymphoma
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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