Effects of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioceramics on macrophage differentiation and polarization in vitro

Ming Gene Tu, Kuo Ting Sun, Tong Hong Wang, Yun Zhen He, Shih Min Hsia, Bi He Tsai, Yin Hwa Shih, Tzong Ming Shieh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background/Purpose: Mineral trioxide aggregate (Pro-Root MTA, PR-MTA) and bioceramics (iRoot® SP Injectable Root Canal Sealer, iR-BC) are used for making apical plugs used in apexification, repairing root perforations during root canal therapy, and treating internal root resorption. The purpose of the present in vitro study was to compare the biological effects of PR-MTA- and iR-BC-based dental sealers in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Methods: Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cell hemocytometer, respectively. Protein expression of biomarkers of cell proliferation, autophagy, and osteoclast differentiation was determined by western blotting. Pro-inflammatory gene expression was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Results: PR-MTA induced cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and iR-BC was more cytotoxic than PR-MTA. Low-dose and short-term treatments of both PR-MTA and iR-BC induced RAW 264.7 cell proliferation. PR-MTA induced autophagy, whereas iR-BC did not. Neither PR-MTA nor iR-BC induced osteoclastogenesis. Pro-inflammatory genes were activated by both materials. However, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was upregulated by iR-BC treatment, but not by PR-MTA treatment. Conclusion: Overall, dental PR-MTA and iR-BC induced pro-inflammatory genes but did not induce osteoclastogenesis in macrophages. PR-MTA and iR-BC induced M2 and M1 polarization, respectively, of RAW 264.7 cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1458-1465
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Bioceramics (BC)
  • Macrophage
  • Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)
  • Osteoclastogenesis
  • Polarization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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