Effects of implants with steroids after endoscopic sinus surgery: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Yi Lin Kao, Yi Chen Huang, Shao Chen Tsai, Ming Tang Lai, Yi No Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis affects approximately 5%−2% of the general population worldwide. Steroid implants after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) have drawn considerable interest for their cost savings, but relevant guidelines indicate that evidence on this topic is of low quality with high heterogeneity. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of steroid implants after ESS by synthesizing relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of potential references from five biomedical databases. They further extracted relevant data from the included studies, including (a) mean, standard deviation, or standard error for Lund–Kennedy endoscopic (LKE) score and Perioperative Sinus Endoscopy (POSE) score and (b) events and sample sizes of each group for further intervention. Data were pooled in a random-effects model, and results were presented as the weighted mean difference (WMD) or risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and I2. Results: Eleven RCTs (n = 853) were included and showed that the steroid implant group had lower LKE scores (WMD, -1.19; 95% CI, -1.75 to -0.62; I2= 0%) and POSE scores (WMD, -1.62; 95% CI, -2.47 to -0.76; I2= 48%) than the placebo implant group at postoperative week 2. Moreover, the reoperation rate in the steroid implant group was also lower than in the placebo implant group (RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.80; I2= 0%). However, no significant difference was observed in the postoperative oral steroid requirement between both groups. Conclusions: Collectively, steroid implant decreases LKE and POSE among patients receiving ESS in the short term, but long-term effects remain unclear. Patient-based outcomes are worth further discussion in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1663-1675
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • chronic rhinosinusitis
  • endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Lund–Kennedy endoscopy score
  • perioperative sinus endoscopy score
  • steroid implants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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