Background: yqiC is required for colonizing the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in human cells; however, how yqiC regulates nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) genes to influence bacteria–host interactions remains unclear. Methods: The global transcriptomes of S. Typhimurium yqiC-deleted mutant (ΔyqiC) and its wild-type strain SL1344 after 2 h of in vitro infection with Caco-2 cells were obtained through RNA sequencing to conduct comparisons and identify major yqiC-regulated genes, particularly those involved in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis, electron transportation chains (ETCs), and carbohydrate/energy metabolism. A Seahorse XFp Analyzer and assays of NADH/NAD+ and H2O2 were used to compare oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification, glycolysis parameters, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, NADH/NAD+ ratios, and H2O2 production between ΔyqiC and SL1344. Results: After S. Typhimurium interacts with Caco-2 cells, yqiC represses gene upregulation in aspartate carbamoyl transferase, type 1 fimbriae, and iron–sulfur assembly, and it is required for expressing ilvB operon, flagellin, tdcABCD, and dmsAB. Furthermore, yqiC is required for expressing mainly SPI-1 genes and specific SPI-4, SPI-5, and SPI-6 genes; however, it diversely regulates SPI-2 and SPI-3 gene expression. yqiC significantly contributes to menD expression in menaquinone biosynthesis. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed the extensive association of yqiC with carbohydrate and energy metabolism. yqiC contributes to ATP generation, and the analyzer results demonstrate that yqiC is required for maintaining cellular respiration and metabolic potential under energy stress and for achieving glycolysis, glycolytic capacity, and glycolytic reserve. yqiC is also required for expressing ndh, cydA, nuoE, and sdhB but suppresses cyoC upregulation in the ETC of aerobically and anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium; priming with Caco-2 cells caused a reversed regulation of yiqC toward upregulation in these ETC complex genes. Furthermore, yqiC is required for maintaining NADH/NAD+ redox status and H2O2 production. Conclusions: Specific unreported genes that were considerably regulated by the colonization-associated gene yqiC in NTS were identified, and the key role and tentative mechanisms of yqiC in the extensive modulation of virulence factors, SPIs, ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis, ETCs, glycolysis, and oxidative stress were discovered.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102
JournalJournal of Biomedical Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Colonization
  • Electron transport chain (ETC)
  • Global transcriptome
  • Glycolysis
  • Menaquinone (MK)
  • Oxidative stress
  • RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)
  • Salmonella Typhimurium
  • Ubiquinone (UQ)
  • yqiC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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