Effects of Chlorhexidine and Povidone-Iodine on the SARS-CoV-2 Load: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Faizul Hasan, Hsiao Yean Chiu, Eisner Salamanca, Edi S. Ridwan, Bayu S. Wiratama, Hendrik S. Budi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The efficacy of mouthwash for reducing the viral load in patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis comprehensively examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) and povidone-iodine (PVP-I) on the viral load in patients with COVID-19. We performed methodological analysis, systematic review, and meta-analysis of included studies using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest were searched from December 1, 2019, to December 2, 2021. In total, we included 10 studies of 1,339 patients with COVID-19. Compared with the control group, both CHX and PVP-I significantly reduced the number of negative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results (p < 0.001) among COVID-19 patients. The CHX and PVP-I were effective on reducing the number of negative RT-PCR results in COVID-19 patients. Additional studies using adequate randomization methods and larger samples are warned.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Dentistry
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • cycle threshold
  • infectious disease
  • mouthwash
  • oral health
  • viral load

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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