Effects of a wearable sensor–based virtual reality game on upper-extremity function in patients with stroke

Fen Ling Kuo, Hsin Chieh Lee, Tien Yu Kuo, Yi Shien Wu, Yi Shan Lee, Jui Chi Lin, Shih Wei Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: PABLO is a virtual reality game where a motion sensor system is used. Few studies have investigated the effects of the PABLO system in stroke rehabilitation. We investigated the effects of upper-extremity virtual reality training with the PABLO system in patients with stroke. Methods: Stroke patients were randomly assigned to the virtual reality (n = 19) or standard rehabilitation groups (n = 18). Total of 18 sessions were conducted twice per week. The primary outcome measure was the Fugl–Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity subscale. Secondary outcome measures included the active ranges of motion of the shoulder and elbow, the box and block test, hand grip strength, and the Stroke Impact Scale. Enjoyment of activities and side effects were also recorded. Findings: No difference was observed between two groups in primary outcome. Virtual reality group exhibited greater improvements in the hand dexterity between groups (p = .05). In active motion, virtual reality group showed greater improvement in shoulder flexion between groups (p = .03). Virtual reality group also showed greater improvements in elbow pronation between groups (p = .03). The groups differed in their assessments of how enjoyment the rehabilitation activities were found (p = .01). No significant differences between groups were observed in any other tests. Interpretation: Interventions based on the PABLO virtual reality system improved upper extremity hand function, shoulder and elbow movements, and elicited a higher degree of enjoyment from study participants, than did traditional treatment. Trials registration: The study protocol was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov PRS (No.NCT04296032).

Original languageEnglish
Article number105944
JournalClinical Biomechanics
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Activities of daily life
  • Stroke
  • Upper extremity function
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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