After a stroke, sustained gait impairment can restrict participation in the activities listed in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model and cause poor quality of life. The present study investigated the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and visual feedback training (VF) training in improving lower limb motor performance, gait, and corticospinal excitability in patients with chronic stroke. Thirty patients were randomized into three groups that received either rTMS or sham stimulation over the contralesional leg region accompanied by VF training groups in addition to the conventional rehabilitation group. All participants underwent intervention sessions three times per week for four weeks. Outcome measures included the motor-evoked potential (MEP) of the anterior tibialis muscle, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) scores, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test scores, and Fugl–Meyer Assessment of Lower Extremity scores. After the intervention, the rTMS and VF group had significantly improved in MEP latency (p = 0.011), TUG scores (p = 0.008), and BBS scores (p = 0.011). The sham rTMS and VF group had improved MEP latency (p = 0.027). The rTMS and VF training may enhance the cortical excitability and walking ability of individuals with chronic stroke. The potential benefits encourage a larger trial to determine the efficacy in stroke patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number515
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • berg balance scale
  • motor-evoked potential
  • repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • stroke
  • timed up and go test
  • visual feedback training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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