Effect of Synchrotron X-ray Irradiation Time on the Particle Size and DFAFC Performance of Pd/CNT Catalysts

Sheng Jung Tsou, Marta Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Yuh Jing Chiou, Chung Kwei Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Global energy sources are limited, and energy requirements are ever-increasing due to the demand for developments in human life and technology. The environmentally friendly direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) is an attractive electronic device due to its clean energy. In a DFAFC, an anodic catalyst plays an important role concerning the oxidation pathway and activity. In the present study, palladium (Pd) was synthesized by synchrotron X-ray photoreduction using various irradiation times (0.5–4 min) to control the particle size. An acid-treated carbon nanotube (A-CNT) was used as the template for Pd deposition. The A-CNT and Pd/A-CNT were examined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to reveal the microstructural characteristics. Electrochemical evaluation, electrocatalytic activity, and the DFAFC performance of so-obtained Pd/A-CNT catalysts were investigated. The experiment’s results showed that the Pd/A-CNT-2 (i.e., synchrotron photoreduction for 2 min) underwent a direct formic acid oxidation pathway and possessed a high ECSA value of 62.59 m2/gPd and superior electrocatalytic activity of 417.7 mA/mgPd. In a single DFAFC examination, the anodic Pd/A-CNT-2 catalyst had a power density of 106.2 mW/mgPd and a relatively long lifetime of 2.91 h. Pd/A-CNT-2 anodic catalysts synthesized by surfactant-free synchrotron X-ray photoreduction with a rapid processing time (2 min) are potential candidates for DFAFC applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number162
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • formic acid oxidation
  • palladium
  • photoreduction
  • synchrotron radiation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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