Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to vascular complications and chronic inflammation. T2DM contributes to a higher risk of mortality and morbidity related to influenza. In Taiwan, influenza vaccination is recommended for patients with T2DM. A previous meta-analysis reported the efficacy of influenza vaccination in reducing hospitalization and mortality in patients with diabetes; however, the renal protective effect of the vaccine remains unclear. This study evaluated whether influenza vaccination could reduce the incidence of CKD and dialysis in patients with T2DM. The study cohort included all patients aged ≥55 years who were diagnosed as having T2DM between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012, by using data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Each patient was followed up with to assess factors associated with CKD. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regression model after adjustment for potential confounders was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of CKD in the vaccinated and unvaccinated patients. The study population comprised 48,017 eligible patients with DM; 23,839 (49.7%) received influenza vaccination and the remaining 24,178 (50.3%) did not. The adjusted HRs (aHRs) for CKD/dialysis decreased in the vaccinated patients compared with the unvaccinated patients (influenza season, noninfluenza season, and all seasons: aHRs: 0.47/0.47, 0.48/0.49, and 0.48/0.48, respectively, all p < 0.0001). We observed similar protective effects against CKD during the influenza and noninfluenza seasons. Regardless of comorbidities or drug use, influenza vaccination was an independent protective factor. Furthermore, aHRs for CKD/dialysis were 0.71 (0.65–0.77)/0.77 (0.68–0.87), 0.57 (0.52–0.61)/0.69 (0.56–0.70), and 0.30 (0.28–0.33)/0.28 (0.24–0.31) in the patients who received 1, 2–3, and ≥4 vaccinations during the follow-up period, respectively. This population-based cohort study demonstrated that influenza vaccination exerts a dose-dependent and synergistic protective effect against CKD in the patients with T2DM with associated risk factors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4520
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • chronic kidney disease
  • cohort studies
  • diabetes mellitus
  • influenza vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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