Effect of dietary patterns on cognitive functions of older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: Dietary Patterns on Cognition of Older Adults

Kee Hsin Chen, Mu Hsing Ho, Cai Shih Wang, I. Hui Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Dietary patterns are associated with cognitive benefits, but inconsistent findings have been reported concerning this association. This study aims to provide a more comprehensive review and higher evidence level by evaluating evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) exploring effects of various dietary patterns on cognitive function outcomes in older adults. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis study followed the PRISMA guidelines. Twelves search engines and databases were searched for papers published up until March 2022. Random-effects models were used to calculate effect size (ES). Results: Twenty-two RCTs met our inclusion criteria. A wide range of cognitive measures were used across the included studies. To reduce heterogeneity and to ensure a sufficient number of studies for meaningful interpretation, we utilized global cognition as the outcome measure. Only nine studies used global cognition measures, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), or neuropsychological test battery. Additionally, seven dietary patterns were identified in these studies. The results demonstrated that dietary patterns achieved a significant improvement on cognitive function outcomes including the MMSE/CASI (ES = 0.303; 95% CI [0.045, 0.560]), the ADAS-Cog (ES = −0.277; 95% CI [−0.515, −0.039]), and the cognitive battery (ES = 0.132; 95% CI [0.010, 0.255]). Conclusions: Multidisciplinary health-care professionals may use this information as a reference when planning elder care. More large-scale, high-quality studies are required to explore the long-term effects of healthy dietary patterns on global cognition, other cognitive domains, and life quality among older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104967
JournalArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume110
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Cognition
  • Dietary patterns
  • Meta-analysis
  • Older adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Ageing
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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