Effect of anterior overbite malocclusion on smile esthetics in adult patients

Johnson Hsin Chung Cheng, Tracy Yi Hsuan Lee, Pei Chin Cheng, Daniel De Shing Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To investigate whether overbite affects smile esthetics. Methods: This study involved 106 patients with complete pretreatment records. Lateral cephalometric tracings were used to measure hard tissue variables. Frontal smile and upper occlusal photographs were used to measure nine smile esthetic variables: arc ratio, number of teeth, upper incisor exposure, upper midline, buccal corridor ratio, smile index, archform index, lower teeth exposure, and interlabial gap. The patients were classified into three groups according to their overbites (B1: 0–4 mm, B2: >4 mm, and B3: <0 mm). Analysis of variance was performed to compare 14 cephalometric measurements and the 9 smile esthetic variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the influencing cephalometric factors. Results: Only upper incisor exposure was significantly different among the groups. In the multiple linear regression analysis, upper incisor exposure was positively associated with the distance from the upper incisor to the palatal plane in Group B2. No significant correlations were observed between cephalometric measurements and smile variables in Groups B1 and B3. Conclusions: Smile variables were not significantly different among patients with various overbite malocclusions with the exception of upper incisor exposure. Overbite malocclusions do not appear to influence smile esthetics in adult patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3000605211039578
JournalJournal of International Medical Research
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • adult patient
  • cephalometric measurement
  • malocclusion
  • overbite
  • Smile esthetics
  • upper incisor exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Cell Biology


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