Objectives: Lung cancer is a main contributor to all newly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The chemoprotective effect of the influenza vaccine among patients with hypertension remains unclear. Methods: A total of 37,022 patients with hypertension were retrospectively enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. These patients were further divided into a vaccinated group (n = 15,697) and an unvaccinated group (n = 21,325). Results: After adjusting for sex, age, comorbidities, medications, level of urbanization and monthly income, vaccinated patients had a significantly lower risk of lung cancer occurrence than unvaccinated patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47–0.67). A potential protective effect was observed for both sexes and in the elderly age group. With a greater total number of vaccinations, a potentially greater protective effect was observed (aHR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.60–0.95; aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.53–0.82; aHR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19–0.36, after receiving 1, 2–3 and ≥4 vaccinations, respectively). Conclusion: Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer among patients with hypertension. The potentially chemoprotective effect appeared to be dose dependent.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1605370
JournalInternational Journal of Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • hypertension
  • influenza vaccination
  • lung cancer
  • malignancy
  • prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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