BACKGROUND: Although tranexamic acid (TXA), a readily accessible antifibrinolytic agent, is widely adopted in hemorrhage scenarios, its role on mortality in patients with hemoptysis remains uncertain. New evidence is yet to be generated to evaluate the risk of mortality after using TXA in patients with hemoptysis. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched from inception to May 2020. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that evaluated the effect of TXA on patients with hemoptysis were included. Data were independently extracted by 2 reviewers and synthesized using a random-effects model. MAIN RESULTS: Five studies with a total of 20,047 patients were analyzed. When compared with the control, administration of TXA was associated with a reduction in short-term mortality (risk ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.85; I2 = 0), shorter bleeding time (mean difference = - 24.61 hours, 95% CI - 35.96 to -13.26, I2 = 0), shorter length of hospital stay (mean difference = -1.94 days, 95% CI -2.48 to -1.40, I2 = 0), and lower need for intervention (risk ratio = 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.87, I2 = 0) in patients with hemoptysis. Compared with control, administration of TXA did not cause increased major or minor adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: TXA provided benefits in terms of a lower short-term mortality rate, less bleeding time, shorter length of hospital stays, and less need for intervention in patients with hemoptysis. Use of TXA was not associated with increased adverse effects.
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