DNA Methylation of Window of Implantation Genes in Cervical Secretions Predicts Ongoing Pregnancy in Infertility Treatment

Quang Anh Do, Po-Hsuan Su, Chien-Wen Chen, Hui-Chen Wang, Yi-Xuan Lee, Yu-Chun Weng, Lin-Yu Chen, Yueh-Han Hsu, Hung-Cheng Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Window of implantation (WOI) genes have been comprehensively identified at the single cell level. DNA methylation changes in cervical secretions are associated with in vitro fertilization embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes. Using a machine learning (ML) approach, we aimed to determine which methylation changes in WOI genes from cervical secretions best predict ongoing pregnancy during embryo transfer. A total of 2708 promoter probes were extracted from mid-secretory phase cervical secretion methylomic profiles for 158 WOI genes, and 152 differentially methylated probes (DMPs) were selected. Fifteen DMPs in 14 genes (BMP2, CTSA, DEFB1, GRN, MTF1, SERPINE1, SERPINE2, SFRP1, STAT3, TAGLN2, TCF4, THBS1, ZBTB20, ZNF292) were identified as the most relevant to ongoing pregnancy status. These 15 DMPs yielded accuracy rates of 83.53%, 85.26%, 85.78%, and 76.44%, and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of 0.90, 0.91, 0.89, and 0.86 for prediction by random forest (RF), naïve Bayes (NB), support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbors (KNN), respectively. SERPINE1, SERPINE2, and TAGLN2 maintained their methylation difference trends in an independent set of cervical secretion samples, resulting in accuracy rates of 71.46%, 80.06%, 80.72%, and 80.68%, and AUCs of 0.79, 0.84, 0.83, and 0.82 for prediction by RF, NB, SVM, and KNN, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that methylation changes in WOI genes detected noninvasively from cervical secretions are potential markers for predicting IVF-ET outcomes. Further studies of cervical secretion of DNA methylation markers may provide a novel approach for precision embryo transfer.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5598
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • DNA methylation
  • boruta algorithm
  • cervical secretion
  • endometrial receptivity
  • in vitro fertilization
  • machine learning
  • noninvasive
  • window of implantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Catalysis
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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