Dissociating effects of spatial learning from locomotor activity for ouabain-induced bipolar disorder-like rats

Ying Chou Wang, En Nan Wang, Chia Chuan Wang, Chung Lei Huang, Andrew Chih Wei Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Whether ouabain, a Na+- and K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor, mimics cognitive impairments that can be dissociated from motor effects in the bipolar disorder-like animal model remains unclear. Ouabain and the vehicle aCSF were microinjected into the left lateral ventricle immediately, after 4h, and after 24h. The results showed that (a) locomotion responses of the Immediate group were significantly decreased compared to those of the aCSF group, particularly the first five minutes. (b) The ouabain-treated rats have longer latency and total distance traveled in the water maze task; however, the velocity was not affected for the ouabain group. (c) The analysis of covariance showed that the latency time (but not the total distance traveled and velocity) of the ouabain group was more impaired than that of the aCSF group, regardless of omitting total distance traveled and cross movement in the open field test. The latency might be more sensitive than the distance traveled and the velocity for assessing spatial learning. Dissociating the spatial learning from the movement may allow testing drug treatments of cognitive deficits independent of locomotor effects associated with bipolar disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)432-437
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 30 2014


  • Bipolar disorder
  • Locomotor activity
  • Open field test
  • Ouabain
  • Spatial learning
  • Water maze test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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