Aging contributes to the progression of vascular dysfunction and is a major nonreversible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using arterial pulse-wave measurements, frequency-domain pulse analysis, and machine-learning analysis in distinguishing vascular aging. Radial pulse signals were measured noninvasively for 3 min in 280 subjects aged 40–80 years. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) was used to evaluate the arterial stiffness of the subjects. Forty frequency-domain pulse indices were used as features, comprising amplitude proportion (Cn), coefficient of variation of Cn, phase angle (Pn), and standard deviation of Pn (n = 1–10). Multilayer perceptron and random forest with supervised learning were used to classify the data. The detected differences were more prominent in the subjects aged 40–50 years. Several indices differed significantly between the non-vascular-aging group (aged 40–50 years; CAVI <9) and the vascular-aging group (aged 70–80 years). Fivefold cross-validation revealed an excellent ability to discriminate the two groups (the accuracy was >80%, and the AUC was >0.8). For subjects aged 50–60 and 60–70 years, the detection accuracies of the two trained algorithms were around 80%, with AUCs of >0.73 for both, which indicated acceptable discrimination. The present method of frequency-domain analysis may improve the index reliability for further machine-learning analyses of the pulse waveform. The present noninvasive and objective methodology may be meaningful for developing a wearable-device system to reduce the threat of vascular dysfunction induced by vascular aging.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104240
JournalMicrovascular Research
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Blood pressure
  • Machine learning
  • Pulse
  • Spectral analysis
  • Vascular aging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Cell Biology


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