Insomnia disorder (ID) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with respiratory arousal threshold (ArTH) phenotypes often coexist in patients, presenting similar symptoms. However, the typical diagnosis examinations (in-laboratory polysomnography (lab-PSG) and other alternatives methods may therefore have limited differentiation capacities. Hence, this study established novel models to assist in the classification of ID and low-and high-ArTH OSA. Participants reporting insomnia as their chief complaint were enrolled. Their sleep parameters and body profile were accessed from the lab-PSG database. Based on the definition of low-ArTH OSA and ID, patients were divided into three groups, namely, the ID, low-and high-ArTH OSA groups. Various machine learning approaches, including logistic regression, k-nearest neighbors, naive Bayes, random forest (RF), and support vector machine, were trained using two types of features (Oximetry model, trained with oximetry parameters only; Combined model, trained with oximetry and anthropometric parameters). In the training stage, RF presented the highest cross-validation accuracy in both models compared with the other approaches. In the testing stage, the RF accuracy was 77.53% and 80.06% for the oximetry and combined models, respectively. The established models can be used to differentiate ID, low-and high-ArTH OSA in the population of Taiwan and those with similar craniofacial features.

Original languageEnglish
Article number50
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • In-laboratory polysomnography
  • Insomnia disorder
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Random forest
  • Respiratory arousal threshold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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