Different types of cell death induced by Enterotoxins

Chiou Feng Lin, Chia-Ling Chen, Wei-Ching Huang, Yi-Lin Cheng, Chia-Yuan Hsieh, Chi-Yun Wang, Ming-Yuan Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The infection of bacterial organisms generally causes cell death to facilitate microbial invasion and immune escape, both of which are involved in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In addition to the intercellular infectious processes, pathogen-produced/secreted enterotoxins (mostly exotoxins) are the major weapons that kill host cells and cause diseases by inducing different types of cell death, particularly apoptosis and necrosis. Blocking these enterotoxins with synthetic drugs and vaccines is important for treating patients with infectious diseases. Studies of enterotoxin-induced apoptotic and necrotic mechanisms have helped us to create efficient strategies to use against these well-characterized cytopathic toxins. In this article, we review the induction of the different types of cell death from various bacterial enterotoxins, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B, staphylococcal alpha-toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, alpha-hemolysin of Escherichia coli, Shiga toxins, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1, heat-labile enterotoxins, and the cholera toxin, Vibrio cholerae. In addition, necrosis caused by pore-forming toxins, apoptotic signaling through cross-talk pathways involving mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and lysosomal injury is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2158-2176
Number of pages19
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2010


  • Alpha-hemolysin
  • Apoptosis
  • Cholera toxin
  • Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1
  • Enterotoxin
  • Exotoxin
  • Heat-labile enterotoxin
  • Necrosis
  • Panton-valentine leukocidin
  • Pore-forming toxin
  • Shiga toxin
  • Staphylococcal alpha-toxin
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin b

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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