Diagnosis of brain metastases from lung cancer using a modified electromagnetism like mechanism algorithm

Kun Huang Chen, Kung Jeng Wang, Angelia Melani Adrian, Kung Min Wang, Nai Chia Teng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Brain metastases are commonly found in patients that are diagnosed with primary malignancy on their lung. Lung cancer patients with brain metastasis tend to have a poor survivability, which is less than 6 months in median. Therefore, an early and effective detection system for such disease is needed to help prolong the patients' survivability and improved their quality of life. A modified electromagnetism-like mechanism (EM) algorithm, MEM-SVM, is proposed by combining EM algorithm with support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier and opposite sign test (OST) as the local search technique. The proposed method is applied to 44 UCI and IDA datasets, and 5 cancers microarray datasets as preliminary experiment. In addition, this method is tested on 4 lung cancer microarray public dataset. Further, we tested our method on a nationwide dataset of brain metastasis from lung cancer (BMLC) in Taiwan. Since the nature of real medical dataset to be highly imbalanced, the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) is utilized to handle this problem. The proposed method is compared against another 8 popular benchmark classifiers and feature selection methods. The performance evaluation is based on the accuracy and Kappa index. For the 44 UCI and IDA datasets and 5 cancer microarray datasets, a non-parametric statistical test confirmed that MEM-SVM outperformed the other methods. For the 4 lung cancer public microarray datasets, MEM-SVM still achieved the highest mean value for accuracy and Kappa index. Due to the imbalanced property on the real case of BMLC dataset, all methods achieve good accuracy without significance difference among the methods. However, on the balanced BMLC dataset, MEM-SVM appears to be the best method with higher accuracy and Kappa index. We successfully developed MEM-SVM to predict the occurrence of brain metastasis from lung cancer with the combination of SMOTE technique to handle the class imbalance properties. The results confirmed that MEM-SVM has good diagnosis power and can be applied as an alternative diagnosis tool in with other medical tests for the early detection of brain metastasis from lung cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number35
JournalJournal of Medical Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2016


  • Brain metastases
  • Electromagnetism like mechanism
  • Feature selection
  • Lung cancer
  • Support vector machine
  • Synthetic minority over-sampling technique

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Information Systems
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


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