Development of the Prodromal Symptoms-Screening Scale (PS-SS): Preliminary Validity and Reliability

Sheila O'Keefe-McCarthy, Shu Liu Guo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


UNLABELLED: Every 40 seconds a person dies of cardiovascular disease.Individuals do not recognize the warning signs--prodromalsymptoms--of an imminent myocardial ischemic event. TheProdromal Symptoms-Screening Scale (PS-SS) is a nine-itemmeasure designed to evaluate PS in individuals with coronaryartery disease.

AIM: This article reports onfour studies (systematic review,focusgroup study, content validity testing and factor analysis) that contributed to the development and psychometric examination ofthe PS-SS.

RESULTS: PS experienced included: unusual fatigue, sleep disturbance, chest pain, anxiety, gastrointestinal symptoms andshortness of breath. The CVI derived was 0.85. The PS-SS presented a two-factor structure pertaining to Specific ProdromalSymptoms and Non-Specific Prodromal Symptoms. Internal consistency reliability was 0.61.

CONCLUSIONS: The PS-SS reflects current prodromal literature,clinical practice and ACS patients' experiences of PS. Furtheritem generation, clarity of symptom description and psychometricevaluation needs to occur prior to use in clinical practice.Keywords: prodromal symptoms, acute coronarysyndrome, psychometric testing, tool development

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-18
Number of pages9
JournalCanadian journal of cardiovascular nursing = Journal canadien en soins infirmiers cardio-vasculaires
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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