Development of in vitro tooth staining model and usage of catalysts to elevate the effectiveness of tooth bleaching

Bor Shiunn Lee, Shih Hao Huang, Yu Chih Chiang, Yu Shan Chien, Chung Yuan Mou, Chun Pin Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Whole blood or tea was frequently used to stain the teeth for measuring the effectiveness of different bleaching materials. However, the components of blood or tea cannot be quantitatively determined and variability might exist among different brands of tea. The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible in vitro tooth-staining model to simulate the intrinsic discoloration of teeth and evaluate the ability of two catalysts to enhance the bleaching activity of H2O2. Methods: Rhodamine B, Orange II, Fe(III) phthalocyanine, and tea were used to stain the tooth specimens for 4-72 h and subsequently bleached by H2O2 for 4-72 h. The process was photographed using a digital stereoscopic microscope and a digital camera. The image was transformed to get L*, a*, b* values of CIE Lab system with image processing software. The catalytic ability of light irradiation plus addition of Fe/Sodium-Y or Mn/Sodium-Y for specimens stained by Orange II was evaluated in test tubes and in extracted tooth model. Results: The color of specimens stained by Rhodamine B could not be sufficiently recovered after bleaching by H2O2. In addition, the reaction of Fe(III) phthalocyanine with H2O2 in test tubes was too fast to be monitored. Light activation plus use of Fe/Sodium-Y or Mn/Sodium-Y could significantly accelerate the bleaching efficiency of H2O2. Significance: Orange II was the most appropriate dye for tooth staining among the dyes used in this study. Addition of Fe/Sodium-Y or Mn/Sodium-Y plus light irradiation could elevate the bleaching efficacy of H2O2 for those specimens stained by Orange II.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-66
Number of pages10
JournalDental Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Orange II
  • Tooth bleaching
  • Tooth staining

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry
  • Mechanics of Materials


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