Development of a short and universal learning self-efficacy scale for clinical skills

Yi-No Kang, Chun-Hao Chang, Chih-Chin Kao, Chien-Yu Chen, Chien-Chih Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background Learning self-efficacy, defined as learners’ confidence in their capability to learn specific subjects, is crucial for the enhancement of academic progress, because it is positively correlated with academic achievements and effective learning strategy use. In this study, we developed a universal scale called the Learning Self-Efficacy Scale (L-SES) for Clinical Skills for undergraduate medical students and validated it through item analysis and content validity index (CVI) calculation. Design The L-SES was developed based on the framework of Bloom’s taxonomy, and the questions were generated through expert consensus and CVI calculation. A pilot version of the L-SES was administered to 235 medical students attending a basic clinical skills course. The collected data were then examined through item analysis. Results The first draft of the L-SES comprised 15 questions. After expert consensus and CVI calculation, 3 questions were eliminated; hence, the pilot version comprised 12 questions. The CVI values of the 12 questions were between .88 and 1, indicating high content validity. Moreover, the item analysis indicated that the quality of L-SES reached the qualified threshold. The results showed that the L-SES scores were unaffected by gender (t = −0.049; 95% confidence interval [−.115, .109], p > .05). Conclusion The L-SES is a short, well-developed scale that can serve as a generic assessment tool for measuring medical students’ learning self-efficacy for clinical skills. Moreover, the L-SES is unaffected by gender differences. However, additional analyses in relevant educational settings are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0209155
Pages (from-to)e0209155
JournalPLoS One
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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