Development and psychometric testing of a short version of the Barriers Questionnaire-Taiwan form for cancer patients

Pi Ling Chou, Kun Ming Rau, Chia Chin Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Background: A comprehensive assessment of patient hesitancy to use analgesics and accurate knowledge related to the promotion of analgesic adherence is necessary for effective pain management. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of a short and concise questionnaire to assess patients' hesitancy to use analgesics in clinical practice. Objective: This paper is a report of the development and psychometric properties of the short version of the Barriers Questionnaire-Taiwan form (S-BQT). Design: This study employed a descriptive design. Setting: A convenience sample was recruited from oncology clinics at two medical centers in Taiwan. Participants: One hundred and eighty-three (N=. 183) patients receiving analgesics for cancer pain participated in the study. Methods: Instruments included the Barriers Questionnaire-Taiwan form (BQT), the Taiwanese version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Measure-Taiwan form (MMAM-T). Two self-administered questionnaires were performed at the same time, and the ratio of analgesic usage was computed over a two-week period. Reliability was established by calculating Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability. The validity was estimated by construct validity, criterion-related validity, and known group validity. Results: To develop the S-BQT, we used reliability analysis to extract nine items from nine subscales. Internal consistency of the S-BQT was indicated by a Cronbach's alphas score of 0.86. Test-retest reliability was assessed as 0.83 over a two-week interval. Factor analysis revealed two factor structures. Criterion-related validity was examined by correlating the S-BQT score, and MMAM-T score, and the ratio of analgesic use. Known group validity was examined by comparing the S-BQT scores of patients with hesitancy to report pain and take analgesics vs. patients demonstrating no such hesitancy in the previous week. Known group validity was also established by comparing the S-BQT scores among patients with low, moderate, and high adherence to the usage of medication. Conclusions: The S-BQT shows excellent reliability and validity. The use of this instrument can help to improve communication between patients and clinicians regarding the use of analgesics in the management of pain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1071-1079
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011


  • Cancer pain
  • Hesitancy to using analgesics
  • Instrument development
  • Reliability
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


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