Development and optimization of djulis sourdough bread fermented by lactic acid bacteria for antioxidant capacity

Hung Yueh Chen, Chang Wei Hsieh, Pin Cheng Chen, Shin Pin Lin, Ya Fen Lin, Kuan Chen Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This study developed a nutritionally valuable product with bioactive activity that improves the quality of bread. Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum), a native plant of Taiwan, was fermented using 23 different lactic acid bacteria strains. Lactobacillus casei BCRC10697 was identified as the ideal strain for fermentation, as it lowered the pH value of samples to 4.6 and demonstrated proteolysis ability 1.88 times higher than controls after 24 h of fermentation. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the djulis fermentation conditions for trolox equivalent antioxi-dant capacity (TEAC). The optimal conditions were a temperature of 33.5 °C, fructose content of 7.7%, and dough yield of 332.8, which yielded a TEAC at 6.82 mmol/kg. A 63% increase in TEAC and 20% increase in DPPH were observed when compared with unfermented djulis. Subsequently, the fermented djulis was used in different proportions as a substitute for wheat flour to make bread. The total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 4.23 mg GAE/g and 3.46 mg QE/g, marking re-spective increases of 18% and 40% when the djulis was added. Texture analysis revealed that adding djulis increased the hardness and chewiness of sourdough breads. It also extended their shelf life by approximately 2 days. Thus, adding djulis to sourdough can enhance the functionality of breads and may provide a potential basis for developing djulis-based functional food.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5658
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Antioxidant
  • Chenopodium formosanum
  • Lactic acid bacteria
  • Sourdough

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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