Developing Indicators of Age-Friendliness in Taiwanese Communities through a Modified Delphi Method

Jo Ying Huang, Hui Chuan Hsu, Yu Ling Hsiao, Feng Yin Chen, Shu Ying Lo, Tzu Yun Chou, Megan F. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study developed indicators of age-friendliness for communities in Taiwan that conform to international standards by referring to the World Health Organization Checklist of Essential Features of Age-Friendly Cities and Taiwan’s existing indicators. The first stage of the research was based on the WHO’s framework and involved a literature review to identify candidate indicators. In the second stage, experts’ opinions were collected through a modified Delphi method, and the indicators were screened and revised on the basis of their importance, community enforceability, and generality. The third stage focused on practical feasibility. External parties were invited to offer their opinions regarding the indicators, which were adjusted accordingly. After three rounds of review and re-examination based on the modified Delphi method, the final set of indicators comprised five core indicators and five optional indicators. These indicators can be used to monitor various aspects of communities and determine their age-friendliness.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14430
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • age-friendly
  • age-friendly community
  • indicator
  • modified Delphi method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


Dive into the research topics of 'Developing Indicators of Age-Friendliness in Taiwanese Communities through a Modified Delphi Method'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this