Determination of ketamine and metabolites in urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Chung Yu Chen, Maw Rong Lee, Fu Chou Cheng, Gong Jhe Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


We have developed an analytical method by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine ketamine and its metabolites in urine. The ionization efficiency between two ionization modes (ESI and APCI) of LC-MS was compared to each other. An easy and simple sample preparation of urine samples was made by passing samples through a 0.22 μm PVDF syringe filter. The results indicated that the ionization efficiency of positive APCI mode is better than positive ESI mode for determination of trace ketamines. A wide linearity range of the research is from 5 to 250 ng mL-1 and the detection limits for ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine were 0.95, 0.48 and 0.33 ng mL-1, respectively. The proposed method was tested by analyzing ketamine and metabolites in the urines of volunteers. The concentrations of ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine are ranged of 5.4-131.0, 12.5-74.1 and 22.8-278.9 ng mL-1, respectively and the ketamines concentration profiles in human urine were also determined. The results demonstrate the suitability of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach to analyze trace amount of ketamine and its metabolites in urine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1217-1222
Number of pages6
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2007


  • Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization
  • Electrospray ionization
  • Ketamine
  • Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
  • Metabolites

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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