22 Citations (Scopus)


Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing various molecules, including cytokines, can reflect the intracellular condition and participate in cell-to-cell signaling, thus emerging as biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD). Inflammation may be a crucial risk factor for PD development and progression. The present study investigated the role of plasma EV cytokines as the biomarkers of PD. This cross-sectional study recruited 113 patients with PD, with mild to moderate stage disease, and 48 controls. Plasma EVs were isolated, and the levels of cytokines, including pro-interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, were evaluated. Patients with PD had significantly increased plasma EV pro-IL-1β and TNF-α levels compared with controls after adjustment for age and sex. Despite the lack of a significant association between plasma EV cytokines and motor symptom severity in patients with PD, cognitive dysfunction severity, assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment, was significantly associated with plasma EV pro-IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α levels. This association was PD specific and not found in controls. Furthermore, patients with PD cognitive deficit (MMSE < 26) exhibited a distinguished EV cytokine profile compared to those without cognitive deficit. The findings support the concept of inflammatory pathogenesis in the development and progression of PD and indicate that plasma EV cytokines may serve as PD biomarkers in future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number604
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 9 2021


  • cytokine
  • extracellular vesicles
  • inflammation
  • Parkinson’s disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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