In recent years, several types of platelet concentrates have been investigated and applied in many fields, particularly in the musculoskeletal system. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is an autologous biomaterial, a second-generation platelet concentrate containing platelets and growth factors in the form of fibrin membranes prepared from the blood of patients without additives. During tissue regeneration, platelet concentrates contain a higher percentage of leukocytes and a flexible fibrin net as a scaffold to improve cell migration in angiogenic, osteogenic, and antibacterial capacities during tissue regeneration. PRF enables the release of molecules over a longer period, which promotes tissue healing and regeneration. The potential of PRF to simulate the physiology and immunology of wound healing is also due to the high concentrations of released growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines that stimulate vessel formation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. These products have been used safely in clinical applications because of their autologous origin and minimally invasive nature. We focused on a narrative review of PRF therapy and its effects on musculoskeletal, oral, and maxillofacial surgeries and dermatology. We explored the components leading to the biological activity and the published preclinical and clinical research that supports its application in musculoskeletal therapy. The research generally supports the use of PRF as an adjuvant for various chronic muscle, cartilage, and tendon injuries. Further clinical trials are needed to prove the benefits of utilizing the potential of PRF.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12608
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • 3D PRF microstructure
  • cartilage
  • cytokines
  • growth factors
  • platelet-rich fibrin
  • platelet-rich plasma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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