The present article reviewed the pharmacologic therapies of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including current and potential treatments. Pharmacologic therapies are an essential part of TBI care, and several agents have well-established effects in TBI care. In the acute phase, tranexamic acid, antiepileptics, hyperosmolar agents, and anesthetics are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy, which have proven efficacies. In the post-acute phase, SSRIs, SNRIs, antipsychotics, zolpidem and amantadine, as well as other drugs, have been used to manage neuropsychological problems, while muscle relaxants and botulinum toxin have been used to manage spasticity. In addition, increasing numbers of pre-clinical and clinical studies of pharmaceutical agents, including potential neuroprotective nutrients and natural therapies, are being carried out. In the present article, we classify the treatments into established and potential agents based on the level of clinical evidence and standard of practice. It is expected that many of the potential medicines under investigation will eventually be accepted as standard practice in the care of TBI patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number838
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • neuroprotectants
  • pharmacologic therapies
  • psychopharmacology
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery


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