Introduction: The concept of local sleep refers to the phenomenon of local brain activity that modifies neural networks during unresponsive global sleep. Such network rewiring may differ across spatial scales; however, the global and local alterations in brain systems remain elusive in human sleep. Materials and Methods: We examined cross-scale changes of brain networks in sleep. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 28 healthy participants during nocturnal sleep. We adopted both metrics of connectivity (functional connectivity [FC] and regional homogeneity [ReHo]) and complexity (multiscale entropy) to explore the global and local functionality of the neural assembly across nonrapid eye movement sleep stages. Results: Long-range FC decreased with sleep depth, whereas local ReHo peaked at the N2 stage and reached its lowest level at the N3 stage. Entropy exhibited a general decline at the local scale (Scale 1) as sleep deepened, whereas the coarse-scale entropy (Scale 3) was consistent across stages. Discussion: The negative correlation between Scale-1 entropy and ReHo reflects the enhanced signal regularity and synchronization in sleep, identifying the information exchange at the local scale. The N2 stage showed a distinctive pattern toward local information processing with scrambled long-distance information exchange, indicating a specific time window for network reorganization. Collectively, the multidimensional metrics indicated an imbalanced global-local relationship among brain functional networks across sleep-wake stages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)835-845
Number of pages11
JournalBrain Connectivity
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • functional connectivity
  • functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • local sleep
  • multiscale entropy
  • regional homogeneity
  • sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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